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Vitamin B-12 has vital functions in the nervous system and in cell division or reproduction. Has been used medically as a "tonic and regenerative. It is known that the B-12 can cure sickle cell anemia, but some doctors have reported that their patients improve significantly from symptoms such as appetite, mood, general vigor, and recover more quickly from surgery even without apparent deficiencies of B -12.
Under physiological conditions there are 3 types of proteins that bind vitamin B12 for absorption:
The vitamin is released from food by the action of acids and pepsin of the stomach, here it joins the haptocorrina secreted in saliva that persists with an affinity at the acidic pH of gastric juice.In the duodenum haptocorrina hydrolyzed by pancreatic enzymes and cobalamin binds to intrinsic factor secreted from the stomach, which presumably involves protecting it from proteolytic enzymes. This complex is absorbed by a specific receptor in the ileum. Receptor binding enables the intrinsic factor-B12 complex into enteric cells, inside the cell intrinsic factor is degraded and the cobalamin is released, joining the transcobalamin II which transports it to the portal circulation. This vitamin acts as a cofactor in the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Is assimilated in the small intestine in the presence of intrinsic factor which is secreted in the stomach. Where this is lacking, not assimilated the B-12 and pernicious anemia can occur.
Although this vitamin is water soluble, like other B complex, the body has some capacity for recycling. Deficiency symptoms may be delayed until more than a year after a low intake of the vitamin. The body uses the B-12 to manufacture and produce blood cells of other tissues as well as the lining of the nerves (myelin).
Protects from damage precancerous lung cells of smokers.
Development and maturation of red blood cells.
Essential in the use of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Collaborates in the manufacture of the myelin sheath in nerves.
Transport and storage of folate in cells.
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